Sentencing options: Criminological theory

There are several sentencing options given by the law. That is, Retribution, Rehabilitation, Incapacitation, Deterrence and Restoration. Criminological theory  helps to  inform more about  sentencing options.  For example, general deterrence theory has limited effectiveness on reducing time or recidivism.  Additionally, restoration is extremely difficult to use in cases of sexual assault.  However, rehabilitation seems successful for nonviolent drug offenses, and specific deterrence appears to reduce recidivism.

Criminological theory: sentencing options

The main aim of criminological theory is to help people  understand crime and criminal justices. Theories help in making and the breaking of the law as well as patterns of criminal activity. The following are different categories of the theory:

Classical criminology theories

Criminologists explain criminal behavior as a conscious choice by individuals. That is, on the basis of assessment of the costs and benefits of various forms of criminal activity.

Biological criminology theory

They explain criminal behavior as determined in part by the presence of certain inherited traits that are likely to increase the likelihood of criminal behavior.

Psychological criminology theory: sentencing options

This on the other hand, explain criminal behavior as the consequence of individual
factors. For example,  negative early childhood experiences , inadequate socialization etc. Consequently, that result in criminal thinking patterns and/or incomplete cognitive development.

Sociological criminology: sentencing options

It emphasizes criminal behavior as primarily influenced by a variety of community-social factors. The factors may appear to be related both directly and indirectly to high crime rates in  our (often poorest) communities. They include blocked legitimate opportunity, the existence of subcultural values that support criminal behavior, a breakdown of community-level informal social controls, and an unjust system of criminal laws and criminal justice the sentencing options. For example, if you know that swift and certain sentencing policies may reduce recidivism, how does theory help   explain their success?  Additionally, if you know that community notification for sex offenders appears to increase recidivism, h0w does theory explain the increase?.


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