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New Business era: Case study

In the wake of new business era, Smart Solutions promotes its new smart devises for employees to optimise their work. Smart Solutions provides a number of smart devises installed in the office and worn by the employee that enable employees to record their interactions, measure their blood pressure, track the eye movement and the speed of their keyboard entries among other things. The genius software shows each employee how much they listened and have spoken in meetings and conversations, their movements in the office, dedication and enthusiasm at work. Smart Solutions says that its devises give employees valuable feedback about their work routines that can improve and optimise the daily work.

The HR manager in your company saw a Smart Solutions presentation in a meeting yesterday and is very excited about the devices. She wants to explore the opportunities and obstacles for such devices for back office and creative staff in your organisation.

possible impact(s) of the device from Smart Solutions on employee productivity.


pros and cons of the devices for employees using theoretical framework(s) related to employment relations.

 recommendation to the HR manager.

financial function: financial management in organisations

The financial function within a business exists to help managers to manage (Atrill,2003 p1). Additionally, financial function is a part of financial management. Moreover, financial Management is the activity concerned with the control and planning of financial resources. In business, the finance function involves the acquiring and utilization of funds necessary for efficient operations in an organization. Finance is core in business as it ensures smooth running of activities.


Major Sources of finance for organizations

Companies have different sources of funds  to smooth financial function. Generally, shareholders and debenture holders contribute long-term funds. On the other hand, medium-term business look to financial institutions while for short-term commercial banks. A company might raise new funds from the following sources:

The capital markets:

new share issues, for example, by companies acquiring a stock market listing for the first time

 Rights issues:
Loan stock
Retained earnings
Bank borrowing
Government sources
Business expansion scheme funds
Venture capital

Importance of Financial Planning

Financial planning outlines what is required now so as to achieve growth in the future. That is, this is the sales numbers we need to make to achieve this level of growth in 3years.The following are the advantages of financial planning in financial function:

For Optimum Fund Raising

financial planning helps to avoid under or overcapitalization in organizations. It helps to determine how much capital will be needed.

Determine Capital Structure

Organizations raises short, medium and long-term funds from various sources. Additionally, financial planning helps to identify the best capital structure to raise money for the various stages.

Helps in Financing the Right Projects

Because financial planning focuses on the company spending one can choose the best investments which guarantee the best return on investment. Financial manager is able to choose the best investment option comparing the various investments proposed.

Give Investor Confidence

Ensuring that your business does financial planning make it easier for a company to attract investors. the company can be able to confidently provide investors with required information in time.

Helps You Survive Turbulent Times

Financial planning helps to anticipate and determine financial requirements  of the business. This in return helps to manage shocks better as it ensures organization have cash reserves which it can use in bad Helps in Operational Activities

Succeeding or failing in the production or distribution process largely depends on financing decisions. If proper financial plans are not made, there will be no smooth operations in departments due to disruptions which translates to losses for the business.

 Types of Financial information collected by organizations

Financial management provide a picture of the performance, financial positions, and cash flows of a business financial function. These documents are used by the investment community, lenders, creditors, and management to evaluate an entity. There are four main types of financial statements which includes:

Income statements

This report reveals the financial function performance of an organization for the entire reporting period. It begins with sales and then subtracts out all expenses incurred during the period to arrive at a net profit or loss. An earnings per share figure may also be added if the financial statements are being issued by a publicly-held company.


Balance sheet

This report shows the financial position of a business as per the report date. Additionally, the information is aggregated into the general classifications of assets, liabilities, and equity. . This is a key document, and so is included in most issuances of the financial statements.

Statement of cash flows

This report shows the cash inflows and outflows done by an organization during the reporting period. Statement of cash flows should be prepared because they are difficult if left unattended for long.

Statement of changes in equity

This report records all changes in equity during the reporting period. These changes include the issuance or purchase of shares, dividends issued, and profits or losses.

When users issue financial statements, the preceding types may have footnote disclosures attached. Further, the additional notes clarify certain information presented in the financial statements, and may be quite extensive. Their exact contents are defined by the applicable accounting standards.

The company’s registered office must keep the accounting records. Furthermore, accounts records must also be open at all times to inspection by the officers of the company. Further, the records must be retained for at least 7 years from the date on which they were created.

Roles of a Finance Manager

Financial managers should manage all the financial functions. Besides, financial managers are expected to manage the funds in such a manner  to ensure their proper utilization. A financial manager is not only good for a private organization but also for a public and non-governmental organizations financial function. The following are the main financial functions of a Finance Manager:

Estimating business requirements of funds.

Deciding the capital structure.

Make investment decisions.

Make dividend pay-out decisions.

Cash management.

Evaluate financial performance with respect to return on investments.

Handle financial negotiations with banks and financial institutions.

Maximize wealth for company shareholders.

Manage company credit.

Tax management.

Manage foreign exchange.

Handle corporate accounting.

Overall the finance management team should make good investments, financing and asset management decisions for the organization.


Importance of ethics in financial management

A good manager can change the profits of a business with proper planning, monitoring, and timely guidance. Additionally, the opposite is true of an incompetent finance manager who can bankrupt a profitable firm. The manager can influence the firm’s fortunes by determining the overall development of an organization if allowed to do his role. Further, financial managers should be ethical in performing their financial function by:

  • Act with honesty and integrity.
  • Avoid conflicts of interest in professional relationships.
  • Provide people with accurate, objective, understandable information.
  • Comply with all rules and regulations governing your position and your company.
  • Act with good faith and independent judgment.
  • Never share confidential information or use it for personal gain.
  • Maintain an internal controls system to guard against unethical behavior.
  • Report anyone you see violating the code.

Being unethical can impact the overall performance of a firm due to misappropriation of funds and poor investment decisions. This damages company’s reputation and credibility in future.

Movement of Trains- the control department

This recording, from Global News, contains a transcript of the interaction. Accordingly, the transcript is all about movement of trains. Chief Rail Traffic Controller (CRTC) also known as ‘dispatch’ Department  controls the movement of trains. Again, you may need to listen more than once and take notes. Read the background information and discussion below to help make sense of this interaction.

The transcript

First, carefully to this recording on movement of trains between a Conductor and a Supervisor (AChief Rail Traffic Controller) working for CN Rail and then answer the following questions in 3 or4 paragraphs using concepts taken from the course text.

The Canadian transcontinental passenger train

Importantly, Rail Canada operates the Canadian  transcontinental passenger train with service between Union Station in Toronto, Ontario, and Pacific Central Station in Vancouver, British Columbia. Notably, movement of trains in Canada is temporarily suspended east of Winnipeg due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Tactics used by the chief controller

1. What influencing tactics does the Chief Controller monitoring the movement of trains use and what tactics does he not use? Moreover, describe the tactics that are used in your own words and show how the Controller’s words fit with these categories.

Conductor’s beliefs about the controller

2. Using the Power Bases framework derived from work by French and Raven as described in course texts 1.c.5 and 1.c.6, what beliefs does the Conductor appear to have about the Controller? Further, give evidence for your judgements from any reading that explains the movement of trains in Canada.

Influencing tactics used by the controller in the trains

3. What effect, if any. Further, name the influencing tactics used by the Controller. Additionally, discuss the ‘Power Bases’ beliefs of the Conductor concerning the Controller had on the behavior of the Conductor. Give reasons for your judgement.

Japanese Pop Culture-Sports

Essay about Japanese Sports culture post World War 2.  Look into westernised sports in Japan, such as baseball and soccer and traditional sports, such as sumo. How are these sports viewed by the population and how are they portrayed by the media. What are the values linked to these sports. Different values in traditional sports westernized sports? Links to soft power and nation branding in Japan. How is the government promoting these sports? The role of international sports events such as Olympic Games the Japanese culture and economy

Disaster for Farmers-providing appropriate solutions

Bumper Crops Spell Disaster for Farmers Due to ideal rainfall and good weather conditions, farmers in Toughtimes are expecting their biggest harvest in many years. Also, “There’s no question that this giant crop is a real disaster,” said John Farmer, the director of Toughtimes Farm Federation. Again, no farmer knows how they will survive this disaster, he added. The Toughtimes Farm Federation is lobbying the government to provide price support programs for this year’s crops.

Long-term determinants of economic growth

(a) The following textbox shows a newspaper excerpt on disaster for farmers in the economy of tough times.

(b) What are the long-term determinants of economic growth and how can the government influence economic growth.

Telecom Australia

Prior to 1991, Telecom Australia (currently known as Telstra) was the only telecommunications services provider in Australia. Consequently, Davidson inquiry passed a legislation  in 1991 allowing duopoly competition to curb disaster for farmers. Optus Communications became Australia’s second general telecommunications carrier. Accordingly, Telstra’s guaranteed returns on existing infrastructure on reasonable terms. After 1997, any telecom company purchasing a carrier license entered the Australian telecommunications market. Read more about Australian telecommunication  (a) Based on the topics covered in this unit explain the rationale behind the government of Australia deregulating the telecommunications market?   (b) Why was Optus guaranteed access to Telstra’s infrastructure? Explain.   (b) To what extent has the government been successful in eliminating disaster for farmers? Provide a brief explanation using some statistical evidence.

Struggle of market economies

Why do market economies struggle to achieve environmentally friendly outcomes? Again, what are the possible strategies that can be used by the government to reduce the amount of carbon emissions in the economy? Additionally, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each strategy in trying to deal with disaster for farmers. Further, provide appropriate diagrams and statistical evidence to support your answer.

Australian grocery retail

Coles and Woolworths dominate the Australian grocery retail (AGR hereafter) sector. First, what type of market structure does this sector resemble? Secondly, based on the concepts learnt in this unit explain the likely reasons for the prevalence of this type of market structure in the AGR sector. Moreover, is the dominance of Coles and Woolworths in the AGR sector strength or a weakness for the Australian economy? Explain using relevant examples.

Economic growth-Australian economy

Economic growth is the increase in the market value of the goods and services that an economy produces over time. The percentage rate change in the real gross domestic product (GDP) is equal to economic growth.

Long-term determining factors of economy growth

There are factors which affect economic growth in a country. The factors can either be short term or long term. Determinants of long-run economic growth include productivity, demographic changes, and labor force participation among others. Government spending also have a great impact on the economy.

Australian telecommunication market regulations

Prior to 1991, Telecom Australia (currently known as Telstra) was the only telecommunications services provider in Australia. In 1991 legislation was passed allowing duopoly competition following the Davidson inquiry recommendation . Optus Communications became Australia’s second general telecommunications carrier. The law guaranteed Optus Communications access to Telstra’s existing infrastructure on reasonable terms. After 1997, Australian telecommunications market allowed any telecom company willing to purchase a carrier license to enter. The government deregulated the telecommunication market to increase competition and promote economic growth.

Strategies put in place to reduce environment pollution

Economic growth comes with high environmental costs. Economies struggle to achieve environmental friendly  outcomes most of the  times. This is because our economic system builds on linear principles that focus on throughput, optimization and cost-benefit efficiency . Government has therefore come up with strategies to help reduce carbon emission to the environment. The strategies put in place also help boost the economic growth as government will spend less. There are two strategies that a country might adopt — a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade system. The carbon tax approach would reduce emissions by providing a strong incentive to be more efficient and use cleaner energy sources. The cap-and-trade system on the other hand sets an overall cap on emissions and then auctions off the right to emit carbon. The cap-and trade system further allows these emission rights to be bought and sold in carbon market. 

Market structure used in the AGR sector

Market structure refers to nature and competition within a market. There are different types of market structure which include monopoly, perfectly competitive market, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. Some factors that influence the type of market structure include the number of sellers and buyers and the nature of products. Each of market structure has its own advantages and disadvantages which subsequently affect economic growth of a country. In the supermarket industry, Coles and Woolworths dominate the Australian grocery retail (AGR hereafter) sector. It should be noted, the two supermarket giants operates in an oligopoly market structure. Firms that operate under this market structure have some powers of price setting. In addition, the firms has product differentiation aspect. There are also certain barriers in entering the market as Coles and Woolworths have undoubtedly solidified their position in the market.

international airlines: strategic management operations

International airlines operate in a very competitive and demanding environment. There are some airlines that operate as cost leaders. No frills cost leader airlines like Ryanair have managed to continually increase revenues and profits over the last 15 years. Restriction of flying passengers during the Covid crisis highly affected all the airlines  operations. Some of these airlines have still managed to be successful following cost leadership model despite the interruption caused by the pandemic.

 International operations

Some companies choose to operate international airlines by largely manufacturing and/or selling their products in other countries. A Company based in the UK that makes specialized components and has had customers only locally may want to expand and operate globally by creating suitable links with companies in other countries that they know will be suitable future customers. When a company needs to go international it is advisable to consult so as to choose the most suitable mode of entry in the international market.

International expansion entry modes

There are five common international expansion entry modes. International expansion is achieved through, exporting, licensing and franchising, partnering and strategic alliances, acquisitions, and establishing new, wholly owned subsidiaries, also known as greenfield ventures. Each of these modes of entering international market have its own advantages and disavantages therefore, need to evaluate their options to choose the best entry mode that suits their strategy and goals.

Corporate social responsibility

Corporate Social Responsibility is when a for-profit company willingly acts in a way that also benefits interests of the society  . This is generally seen as a positive development even in international level operations. According to GlobalWebIndex (2019), 68% of online consumers would consider not using a brand because of poor corporate social responsibility. Many companies therefore take up their corporate social responsibility to market and build reputation.

 Merger and Acquisition

Merger is combination of two companies which subsequently form a new legal entity banner under one corporate name. On the other hand, in case of acquisition, one company buys the others company outright. Companies mostly do merging or acquisition when they feel the need to grow and operate in international levels. Problems may arise during the process of mergers and acquisition hence companies should hold preliminary discussions to ease the process. Post merger, some companies grow even in international operations and become very successful while others fail.

Int’l Strategic Management

Answer ANY 2 Questions
1. International airlines operate in a very competitive and demanding environment. There are some airlines that operate as cost leaders. In the module we looked at how no frills cost leader airlines like Ryanair have managed to continually increase revenues and profits over the last 15 years. Obviously during the Covid crisis all airlines including Ryanair have suffered badly as there have been restrictions on passengers flying. Discuss how airlines like Ryanair have managed to follow the no frills cost leadership model and been successful. Do you think this model will be successful following the Covid-19 crisis? You should refer to appropriate academic models to help you answer the question. (1000 word limit, 50% of marks)
2. Why do some companies choose to be ‘international’ companies manufacturing and/or selling their products in other countries? A Company based in Bangor called Morgan’s Widgets makes specialised components and traditionally has had customers only in the UK. Its new Chief Executive Officer (CEO) has strong links with a number of Canadian companies which she thinks will be suitable future customers. She knows that the company should become international and needs your assistance as a Consultant. From the knowledge gained from the ASB-4413 module discuss the various possible modes of entry that Morgan’s Widgets can use to ‘go international’. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method? What other advice would you have for the CEO and her company? Please note that Morgan’s Widgets is a fictitious Company and you can make any reasonable assumptions providing you clearly state them (1000 word limit, 50% of marks)
3. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is when a for-profit company willingly acts in a way that benefits interests beyond those of the firm and its owners. This is generally seen as a positive development. According to GlobalWebIndex (2019), 68% of online consumers would consider not using a brand because of poor or misleading corporate social responsibility. Why are companies even in heavy polluting industries supporting CSR initiatives? What are the reasons against CSR? As part of your answer, you should discuss some academic views on CSR. (1000 word limit, 50% of marks)
4. You have been employed as an advisor to which employs 5000 people across 10 countries. They develop software for companies in the Financial Services sector around the world. They have been in existence for 15 years but feel that they need to grow and be a larger player in the industry and are considering merging with another similar sized organisation ( They have had preliminary discussions with but are aware that many Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A) fail. They have heard that there can be many problems that arise during the many phases of the M&A lifecycle. You are required to: Write a report outlining to the various phases of the M & A Acquisition Lifecycle that two companies go through before, during and after they complete the merger or acquisition. You are required to identify the potential problems that may be encountered at each phase. You can make any reasonable assumptions providing you clearly state the assumptions. Please note and are fictitious companies.

completed assignment


Additional Files

Mass Incarceration of Minorities: social justice system

Mass incarceration of minorities in the United States has increased tremendously over the last few decades stretching of the the social justice system beyond limits. According to Pettit and Western, there was a six-fold increase in the jail population in the United States between 1972 and 2000 (p.151). In the beginning of the 21st century, there were about 1.3 million men locked up in jail (Pettit and Western p.151). The numbers have kept on increasing, with James Oleson indicating that at year-end 2014, there were more than 2.2 million people locked up in U.S prisons and jails (p.1).

Factors of race, gender, and class in social justice system

The social justice system appears to have a challenge when the Mass incarceration of minorities numbers are analyzed considering such factors as race, gender, and class. People of the upper class are rarely incarcerated while those from lower classes easily get in jails and prisons. Wealth is linked to incarceration rates in such a way that the rich populations are less likely to be jailed when compared to the poor. Additionally, males are more likely to be jailed when compared to females.

Racial minorities, for instance, are overrepresented in offences committed, delinquency, victimization, as well as all the stages and processes of the criminal justice system (Pettit and Western p.2-3). The incarceration reforms instituted in early 1970s led to an increase in the number of incarcerated individuals. These reforms, however, have brought bias in the criminal justice system where certain groups of people undergo incarceration more than others.

The numbers of confined populations

The numbers of confined populations are majorly constituted by minorities, with the Black population leading in numbers. According to Oleson, minority males are more likely to be mass incarcerated when compared to majority populations (p.1). For instance, Hispanic males are twice more likely to be incarcerated when compared to white non-Hispanic males. Also, Black males are six times more likely to be incarcerated when compared to non-Hispanic white males (Olsen p.1-2).

According to Dirks, sexuality also comes into play through penal spectatorship, with white women being the subject of a biased criminal justice system (p.161-62). According to these authors, beautiful white women offenders are viewed as victims of circumstances.  As such, many tend to elude incarceration through white and sexual protectionism.

The rise of the social justice challenge

The rise of the social justice challenge of biased mass incarceration of minorities is attributed to many factors. The prison boom can be traced back to the 1970s when the U.S declared war on drugs. Race and economic conditions have been associated with drug-related offences. According to Pettit and Western, people from poor backgrounds tend to be limited in skills that can be used to earn a living (p. 153).

Low levels of education and skilled training are common among the poor and racial minorities. This make them prone to engaging in offences which later lead to incarceration. Biased incarceration for minorities also comes from existence of slim economic opportunities for minorities. Racial minorities, especially Black males, find it hard to survive in the economically unfavorable and turbulent living conditions in their neighborhoods which often lead them to crime. The same situation explains why individuals from poor backgrounds tend to be involved more in crime (Pettit and Western p. 153).

Engineering of social bias

The social justice system also participates in engineering the bias challenges in incarceration rates. For instance, research has shown that racial minorities and the poor are punitively policed, prosecuted, and incarcerated as opposed to racial majorities and the rich. According to Pettit and Western, racial minorities and the poor are considered threatening or troublesome by the criminal justice system (p.153-54).

Policing efforts tend to be more concentrated in racial minority regions as well as poor neighborhoods, a factor that may explain the high levels of incarceration among African American males and poor citizens. The economic disadvantages faced by racial minorities propel lower levels of education which attract high concentrations of policing, prosecution, and incarceration rates.

Effects of biased mass incarceration

The biased mass incarceration has enormous negative effects on the affected groups. Research has focused on the impact of mass incarceration of minorities on the areas of personal development, family structure, economic development of communities, and crime. According to Crutchfield and Weeks, mass incarceration of Black males tends to disrupt the family structure which in turn affects the upbringing of children (p.48).

The high rates of incarceration of Black males usually lead to parenting gaps which in turn contribute to the development of a delinquent culture due to the absence of father figures. Another challenge occurs on a personal level where the process of transition to adulthood occurs in jail for many incarcerated individuals. According to Pettit and Western, imprisonment has become a new stage for a significant number for many young low-skilled Black men.

As a result, the normal transition process is altered and these individuals become socially disoriented. Mass imprisonment of minorities also affects communities through deprivation of economic progress that would result from the human capital provided by the imprisoned parties.

Reducing bias

Over the past few years, different strategies have been adopted to ensure that the bias in mass incarceration is reduced. The main players in these strategies have been federal and state governments, communities, and prisons. According to Norris, legislative authorities in a number of states as well as in the federal government have realized the impact of economic disadvantages on the rates of incarceration on minority groups (p.497-98).

Legislative efforts have been implemented to ensure that such social amenities such as schools and training centers are improved in such areas. Education has been fronted as a key to reducing the mass incarceration of minorities

State and federal authorities have directed resources to these communities to ensure that education benefits the minorities by providing them with skills to pursue economic interests (Mauer p.89-93). Also, prison systems have implemented training policies to ensure smooth reentry of former inmates into the society. Te aim is to reduce the risk of recidivism. By imparting working and social skills to prisoners, the correctional facilities ensure that individuals’ easy reentry into society

Short term and long term strategies in reducing social bias

Both short- and long-term strategies need to be applied to reduce the challenge of biased mass incarceration. As aforementioned, some of the challenges are engineered by the criminal justice system. The handling of these challenges constitutes the short-term strategies to deal with biased mass incarceration of minorities

The social justice system should be readjusted to have equality. For instance, police officers need to exercise equality when policing Black, Hispanic, and White communities (Mauer p.87-89). Additionally, prosecution needs to apply equal rules when dealing with people from different backgrounds. Judges also need to avoid sentencing bias on the lines of gender, class, and race.

Long-term strategies should focus on establishing a fair playground for minority groups. This would ensure that all people are provided with equal economic, social, and political opportunities. Education for Black communities, for instance, will ensure that young people obtain skills to compete fairly in the job market. Reformation of the criminal justice system to ensure equality and fairness is also a long-term strategy that can help achieve reduced mass incarceration among minority groups. More information

Works Cited

Crutchfield, Robert D., and Gregory A. Weeks. “The effects of mass incarceration on communities of color.” Issues in Science and Technology 32.1 (2015): 109.

Dirks, Danielle, Caroline Heldman, and Emma Zack. “‘She’s White and She’s Hot, So She Can’t Be Guilty’: Female Criminality, Penal Spectatorship, and White Protectionism.” Contemporary justice review 18.2 (2015): 160-177.

Mauer, Marc. “Addressing racial disparities in incarceration.” The Prison Journal 91.3_suppl (2011): 87S-101S.

Norris, Jesse J. “State efforts to reduce racial disparities in criminal justice: Empirical analysis and recommendations for action.” Gonzaga Law Review 47 (2011): 493-530.

Oleson, James C. “The New Eugenics: Black Hyper-Incarceration and Human Abatement.” Social Sciences 5.4 (2016): 1-20.

Pettit, Becky, and Bruce Western. “Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in US incarceration.” American sociological review 69.2 (2004): 151-169.

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