Streptococcus Pneumoniae: Antibiotic Resistance

Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium is a significant human being pathogen. It is especially harmful in younger children, elderly and also immuno-compromised individuals (E D and Klein, 1995). As reported by the World Health 0rganization (WHO), S. pneumoniae kills over 1.6 million individuals every year. Out of which over 800,000 are young children under the age of 5 years old.

Around ninety different serotypes of the bacteria which were based on the polysaccharide capsule were recorded by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The pneumococcus is actually a versatile microorganism, capable to deal with a challenging environment. Subsequently, the own survival mechanisms and toxin resistance mechanisms of pneumococcus are generally of significant scientific concern.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium that is responsible for the majority of community-acquired pneumonia. It is a commensal organism in the human respiratory tract, meaning that it benefits from the human body, without harming it. However, infection by pneumococcus may be dangerous, causing not only pneumonia, but also bronchitis, otitis media, septicemia, and meningitis.

Burden and Diseases of Streptococcus pneumoniae

A change from asymptomatic commensal bacteria to an intrusive pathogen greatly depends on the balance of the microbial fauna in the nasopharyngeal area. Some past infections like influenza might be causing the imbalances (O’Brien et al., 2000), (Woodford, 2003). Children, who their immune system is in the process of developing, are often the most vulnerable group of the population in the direction of pneumococcal infection while it represents mortal danger, particularly in establishing countries.

In addition to that, the faunal inequality might set the pneumococcus to move towards some other organs.  For example: sinuses, lungs, ears, blood, and brain to trigger pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, joint inflammation, sepsis

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