Sociological Perspective of Poverty

Sociological explanations of poverty

Most of the sociological theories focus on understanding social change. There is a limited focus on poverty from a sociological perspective. Sociologist Max Weber pointed to the importance of economic factors in sustaining inequality and influencing power and status in the community. Emile Durkheim on the other hand stressed the importance of social inequality in sustaining the wellbeing of society.

These perspectives have been echoed through different sociological thinking along the poverty line right up to the present day (Gilles et al., 2017). Much of the sociological literature on poverty especially in the 70s and the 80s revolve around the relative importance of social structure and the individual agency in explaining the prevalence and perpetuation of poverty over time. the propensity of political and social institutions marking out some people and communities as being the reason for their hardship has been in existence for a long time.

In the most recent literature, the social welfare system is responsible for encouraging and supporting the claimant’s welfare dependence. Thus in one way or the other promoting poverty (Omoniyi, 2018). Sociologists also use the concept of social class extensively in developing their literature. most of them agree that social class has an economic base. However, in the past few years, some sociologists have argued that the distinctions in social class have become more complex and fuzzier and less significant in determine lifestyle and life experiences (Omoniyi, 2018). Poverty is also a significant driver of stigma and shame in society as people from the poverty side are often considered as the “other group”

Sociological Theories of the causes of poverty

There have been multiple theories that explain the causes of poverty. However, the most common theories that have been used include the behaviours theory, structural theory, and political theories. The behavioral theories concentrate on individual behaviours that in one way or the other contribute to poverty.  These behaviours follow incentives and cultures that promote the development of poverty in a household or a community (Wu and Si, 2018).

For instance, there has been a culture of not investing in education leads to many people not accessing job opportunities available in the market. Structural theories focus on emphasizing the demographic and labour markets contents both of which causes poverty. Political theories content that political institutions come up with policies that eventually motivate and cause poverty in certain communities. For instance, limited investment in education and the development of infrastructure in some parts of the nation will lead to poverty. many people will not have access to opportunities and even if they do, they are not educated enough to take them.

Theoretical Approaches to Poverty Reduction

Poverty reduction is a primary goal in the world today. Some of the approaches that can help in poverty reduction include the enaction of equity policies. Poverty keeps being an issue because the current political system makes policies favoring the rich and demining the poor. Therefore, coming up with polici3es that give the poverty-stricken communities more investment will lead to equitable growth and access to equal welfare opportunities. This way, people will have access to opportunities thus enhancing their income and navigating their way out of poverty. Another approach is an investment in education.

For years education has been the most important tool in fighting poverty. For instance, most of the communities in generational poverty have inherited poverty from their parents. Due to the limited access to social welfare amenities, they are not able to exploit the opportunities in the economy. Besides, education prepares people on how to navigate different challenges. They can also engage in undertakings such as investment and business rather than depending on donations. Bottom line, the nation will have the skills to engage in self-employment and investment.

Evaluate at least two theoretical approaches to poverty reduction

Poverty reduction approaches should be based and mainstreamed into the national policy formulation. For instance, redistribution policies can ensure that wealth also gets to the poor. Thus reducing the gap between the poor and the rich (Jouini et al., 2018). This means that the nation can be able to reduce its poverty levels. Generations that have been living in poverty will have access to welfare amenities such as education and healthcare. Both of which will lead to productivity and more income for the households and the community in general (Ijaz, 2018). Besides Sociological Perspective, there are also behavioural approaches that aim at changing people’s behaviors to those that facilitate investment and reduction of poverty. Campaigns and educational programs to teach people how to save and build their income. This will enhance productivity and also make people stop depending on government donations and start working.

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