Antibiotic resistance: factors contributing antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of  medicines used to prevent and treat bacterial infections .Antibiotic resistance is accelerated by the misuse and overuse of antibiotics, as well as poor infection prevention and control. Further, new resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally. Consequently, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases. Additionally, growing list of infections  such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, blood poisoning, and foodborne diseases  are becoming harder to treat as antibiotics become less effective.

 Major factors contributing to antibiotic resistance

The following are the major factors contributing to antibiotic resistance:

a.      Overuse

b.     Misuse (i.e.. viral, fungal)

c.      Veterinary Use

d.     Food Production and Food preservation

e.      Illegal purchasing in certain countries

f.       Environmental exposure and contaminated water also leads to antimicrobial resistance and consumption of low levels of AB’s

Issues resulting from this resistance

No one can completely avoid the risk of resistant infections, but some people are at greater risk than others for example, people with chronic illnesses. If antibiotics lose their effectiveness, then we lose the ability to treat infections and control public health threats. When  antibiotic resistance occurs the following issues arise:

More expensive medicines must be used.

Increased mortality.

A longer duration of illness and treatment,

Increases health care costs as well as the economic burden on families and societies.

Antibiotic resistance is putting the achievements of modern medicine at risk.

Organ transplantations, chemotherapy and surgeries such as caesarean sections become much more dangerous without effective antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections.

 Factors to consider for oral drug delivery: Antibiotic resistance

Drug design is used to increase biocompatibility route of administration, first pass effect – prodrugs, solubility, half life, elimination etc .The following are the factors to consider for delivery of oral drugs:

A.     Absorption

B.     Distribution

C.     Metabolism

D.     Elimination


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